Bulgaria’s WWII rescue of Jews: the other side of the coin October 6, 2012Posted by Yilan in Bulgaria, Macedonia.
Tags: Bulgaria, Jews, Macedonian Jews
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“You are a hero rescuer but also a brutal murderer and a cool persecutor. You cannot say the one without saying the other too,” Michael Berenbaum, founder of the US Holocaust Memorial Museum, told a conference Friday in Sofia aimed at shedding light on this sombre page of Bulgaria’s history.
“Evil has no nationality. The elucidation of this subject will contribute to reconciliation in the Balkans,” Bulgarian political analyst Antony Todorov added.
Historians say 11,000 Jews from Bulgarian-administered territories in what are now modern Macedonia and Greece did end up in Nazi death camps.
But Bulgaria has used its reputation as an honourable exception and a Jewish saviour as the basis for building up ties with Israel, and both countries are preparing to mark next March the 70th anniversary of Sofia’s refusal to send its Jews to be slaughtered by the Nazis.
“This subject has been strongly exploited for political ends,” Bulgarian historian Nikolay Poppetrov said.
Researchers agreed that authorities in Bulgaria have carefully avoided speaking about the other side of the World War II history coin.
The treatment of the Macedonian Jews has remained largely unknown by the general public in Bulgaria. But it has nevertheless marred ties between Sofia and Skopje.
“There is no amnesia in the nation’s memory,” Macedonian historian Todor Chepretanov said, explaining that the Bulgarian government, police and monarchy of the time bore responsibility for the deportation of the Macedonian Jews.
“Certainly, facing the truth can be painful, but trying to sweep it under the carpet or ignore it only increases the pain and trauma for you and for future generations,” he added.
Some historians argue that Bulgaria felt obliged to sacrifice Jews in the territories it administered for the German Reich to save more of its own Jewish population.
For Bulgarian Jewish journalist Emmy Baruh, however, whose family was one of those who escaped deportation, “the interpretation that the lives of 50,000 were paid for by those of 11,000 is immoral and sinister.”On Mar.9, 1943, freight trains waited at Kyustendil in western Bulgaria and Plovdiv to the south to deport the first wave of 9,000 Bulgarian Jews to extermination camps in Poland, a few weeks after the right-wing government signed an accord to this end with the Nazis.
Parliament deputy speaker Dimitar Peshev was alerted about the convoy preparations by his voters in Kyustendil and rushed to intervene.
He wrote a letter of protest signed by 42 lawmakers from different parties to Prime Minister Bogdan Filov and King Boris III. Christian Orthodox clergy, intellectuals and the still underground communist movement staged solidarity rallies and the king managed to postpone the deportation indefinitely.
Deportations however started in territories in western Macedonia, northern Greece and southern Serbia, which Bulgaria had lost during preceding wars but were returned to its administration by Germany.
A total of 11,343 Jews from these regions were deported by the Bulgarian army, lists show, including a baby, named as Isak, his age “zero,” sent to the Treblinka death camp in Poland.
The few survivors remembered the “astounding cruelty” of some soldiers, who committed violent and humiliating acts against them, Baruh said.
For Poppetrov, even if Bulgaria saved its Jews from the death camps, public opinion in the country was not at all tolerant to them.
“Our society allowed Jews to be deprived of their civil rights: they were displaced, made to wear a yellow star, and banned from practising certain professions,” he said.
Historian Rumen Avramov meanwhile saw “economic motives” behind what he described as the “anti-Semitism of the state,” demonstrated by the 1941 Law for the Protection of the Nation that notably nationalised Jewish property.
“The Bulgarian state has to recognise the facts and apologise,” he urged.
“But public opinion is not mature enough yet and the politicians are annoyed when this subject is raised,” he said resignedly.
Macedonian Jews erect world-class Holocaust museum May 26, 2010Posted by Yilan in Macedonia.
Tags: Holocaust, Jew, Macedonian Jews
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The construction cranes, heavy machinery and plumes of dust in Skopje’s city center herald the final chapter in one of the Balkans’ saddest tales. After years of delays, Macedonia’s Jews are building a world-class museum to remember their near-extinction in the Holocaust.
“The highest percentage of Jews destroyed anywhere in the world — including Poland — was in Macedonia,” said Rahamin Mizrahi, vice president of the Jewish Community, a nonprofit overseeing the project. “It was 98 percent of the Jews. From our people, no one came back. At least with this museum they will have a grave, not ashes spread around the fields.”
Boosters hope the center’s mission will resonate throughout former Yugoslavia, where genocide was committed in the 1990s for the first time in Europe since World War II.
“Final solutions don’t exist,” said Mizrahi. “You remember the war in Bosnia. You’ve seen what happened in Kosovo. This museum will teach the next generation — not us, because we know — that there is no final solution.”
The Holocaust Center also illustrates a recent trend in Macedonia to more strongly assert the country’s identity as an independent nation. The project dovetails conveniently, for example, with Skopje 2014, the government’s controversial, $273 million plan to transform the city from a provincial seat into a full-fledged European capital.
The center and Skopje 2014 are technically unrelated. But if the center is completed next year, as expected, and Skopje 2014 remains on schedule, the new center will eventually stand in a radically redesigned downtown, near a new Macedonian history museum, new national theater, a massive triumphal arch and other proposed monuments.
Taxpayers are footing the bill for Skopje 2014, making it a subject for public debate. The center’s costs, alternatively, are covered by a special fund created in 2000 from the assets of Macedonian Jewish families who perished in the Holocaust and left no heirs. But critics within the Jewish community nonetheless link the two, arguing the center’s backers are overreaching in the same way the government is trying to do too much with Skopje 2014.
“It’s become big, maybe too big,” said Samuel Sadikario, a former president of the Holocaust Fund, a quasi-public organization that administers the center’s budget. “Maybe such a project should be done in Poland.”
Located on a 30,000-square-foot parcel near the River Vardar, in Skopje’s former Jewish quarter, the Holocaust Memorial Center will commemorate the 7,200 souls sent to the Treblinka death camp in 1943, when Nazi-ally Bulgaria occupied Macedonia, then part of Yugoslavia. The $23-million center is slated to contain a museum, arts center and hotel.
About 220 Jews remain in Macedonia, too few to merit a grand center, said Sadikario. He thought the millions invested in the project might be better spent on Macedonia’s crumbling universities. He also noted that construction was supposed to finish two years ago, but has been repeatedly delayed by the Jewish leaders struggling to manage the project.
“There is no capacity,” Sadikario said. “Judaism is actually dying out in Macedonia. It’s not too much to say its dead.”
Despite their small numbers, Macedonian Jews keep alive a simmering dispute between them and Bulgaria, whose fascist government rounded up their relatives and neighbors on Adolf Hitler’s command.
The irony of that tragedy is that Bulgaria’s elite during World War II convinced the country’s then-king, Boris, to save Bulgaria’s 50,000 Jews from extermination, while Bulgarian troops sent about 11,300 Jews from Macedonia, northern Greece and south Serbia to concentration camps in Poland.
Today, Mizrahi is careful to make clear he has nothing personal against Bulgarians. “The Bulgarian Orthodox Church and intelligentsia rose and said ‘You are not going to deport our people,’” he said. “I want to make a difference between present-day Bulgarians and fascist Bulgaria under Tsar Boris.”
Bulgaria has yet to formally apologize for its actions. But Mizrahi hopes the buzz generated once the Holocaust Center is completed will persuade Bulgaria’s leaders to change their minds. That would bring an end to the last indignity Macedonian Jews continue to endure from the Holocaust, he said.
In an email, Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokeswoman Vessela Tcherneva said Macedonia has not filed an official request for an apology. But that wasn’t the point, she added.
“It is … a question that is often discussed here in the light of Bulgaria’s moral responsibility for the tragic fate of the Macedonian Jews,” she wrote. “The Bulgarian state could not achieve what it did with its own Jewish population.”
Sixty-seven years from Holocaust of Macedonian Jews March 16, 2010Posted by Yilan in Macedonia.
Tags: Holocaust, Macedonia, Macedonian Jews
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The Macedonian Jewish Community marks Wednesday 67 years from the deportation of Macedonian Jews to Nazi camp Treblinka.
The anniversary from the tragic event will be marked in Stip and Bitola, where Jewish Community delegations will lay flowers at the monuments of deported Jews and fallen World War II fighters, along with signing of cooperation memorandums with the two municipalities.
The Skopje events will be held on Thursday with laying of flowers before the monument of Macedonian Jews and visit of Butel cemetery. Commemorative program will be held at the Drama Theatre in the evening, addressed by Macedonian Jewish Community president Bjanka Subotic and Israel’s ambassador David Cohen, followed by theatre play “Railroad for the Icy Spring” by Tomislav Osmanli, directed by Nela Vitosevic.
In the framework of the Holocaust observance, book “Jews from Monastir, Macedonia” by Schlomo Albocher was promoted in gallery Daut Pasin Amam on Tuesday evening.
Moreover, the Macedonian Holocaust Fund signed memorandums of cooperation with the City of Skopje and several institutions and organizations, aimed at providing assistance for the completion and structuring of the Skopje-based Holocaust Memorial Center.
Upon a decree by the Bulgarian government, almost all Jews, i.e. 98 percent of the Jewish population in Macedonia, were arrested on the night between March 10 and 11. They were taken to the place of the current Tobacco Company, which was then a temporary concentration camp. Majority of Jews came from Bitola, Skopje and Stip. After being stripped of their property, along with confiscation of jewelry and money, they were loaded into trains and transported to death camp Treblinka in occupied Poland, where they were immediately executed. According to estimates, about 900,000 people were killed in the camp during World War II.